Awakening to the Perils of Malaria: A Call to Action for Nigeria

In the heart of Nigeria, nestled within its vibrant communities, lies a silent menace that has plagued our people for generations: malaria. It was many years ago when I first witnessed its cruel grip, as a child in my village succumbed to the disease due to lack of prompt treatment. Little did I know then the magnitude of the threat posed by this seemingly insignificant insect – the mosquito.

Malaria, a mosquito-borne disease, has long haunted the tropics and subtropics, especially sub-Saharan Africa. It has claimed countless lives, often striking with stealth and severity. As I delved into research, I stumbled upon a chilling revelation: mosquito-borne diseases have killed more individuals than all wars combined. The sheer magnitude of this statistic shook me to my core, yet it wasn’t until I found myself battling acute malaria that the gravity of the situation truly hit home.

The impact of malaria on our communities cannot be overstated. It ranks among the ten deadliest diseases of our time, surpassing even HIV as the most dangerous affliction in sub-Saharan Africa. Caused by the protozoan parasite Plasmodium and transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito, malaria poses a grave threat, particularly in Nigeria where 98% of cases are attributed to Plasmodium falciparum. Its severe form can lead to complications such as cerebral malaria, posing a significant risk to vulnerable populations, including pregnant women, immuno-compromised individuals, and children under the age of five.


Reflecting on the tragic loss of a young child in my village, I realized that many have forgotten the deadly toll of malaria. Chimdindu’s parents, unaware of the true cause of her fever, attributed her illness to wicked forces within the village. Their desperate attempts to seek solace in mushroom prayer houses only underscored the pervasive ignorance surrounding malaria’s true nature. It was clear that awareness and education were sorely lacking, leaving our communities vulnerable to its insidious grasp.

Throughout history, the correlation between malaria and stagnant waters, swamps, and marshy lands has been recognized. From the writings of Hippocrates and the Greeks to the drainage systems of ancient Rome and Greece, efforts have been made to combat this relentless foe. Yet, despite these advancements, malaria continues to exact a heavy toll on our society.

Today, Nigeria bears a disproportionate burden of malaria, with over 60% of the population experiencing at least one episode annually. The disease not only strains our healthcare system but also contributes to economic losses, poverty, and poor pregnancy outcomes. The toll it takes on our most vulnerable – causing anemia, low birth weight, and even congenital malaria – is a stark reminder of the urgent need for action.

To combat malaria effectively, we must bring it to our collective subconscious. We cannot afford to forget the devastating impact it has on pregnant women, immuno-compromised individuals, and young children. Malaria, a persistent health challenge in Nigeria, demands a comprehensive strategy. Preventive measures must take center stage, emphasizing health education, lifestyle adjustments, and community involvement. By promoting awareness and ownership, we can reduce the disease burden. Additionally, community-based support programs play a crucial role, especially in rural areas. These programs empower individuals, offer mental health services, and strengthen community bonds. Lastly, collaboration among stakeholders—government bodies, NGOs, and community leaders—is essential. As we navigate the challenges posed by malaria, let us heed the call to action. Let us mobilize our resources, both public and private, to fight this malady that threatens our very existence. Together, we can build a healthier, malaria-free Nigeria for generations to come.

By Onyeka Chukwudalu Ekwebene (MD, MPH) East Tennessee State University, Tennessee, USA.


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